The Root of Terrorism a la
20 Nov, 2005
- 'We have to pay a tax to go to Paradise'---Ramzi Binalshibh
The Invasion of Hamra al-Aswad by Muhammad - March, 624CE
As stated earlier, Muhammad was deeply perturbed at the defeat of Muslims at Uhud; therefore, to salvage Muslim morale as well as to instil fear in the hearts of the Jews and the hypocrites, he planned a few attacks against the enemy in order to offset the ignominy of the rout at Uhud,
So Sunday the 8th of Shawaal, AH3 (March 24, 625), the next day after Uhud, when the Muslims woke up, they heard that Muhammad had called them to join him in the pursuit of the returning Quraysh army. He gave a general order of mobilization of the troops, but with the condition that only those who had participated in the Uhud battle the previous day were eligible to join in the new operation. Undoubtedly, he did this to elevate the spirit of the Jihadists, to remove the impression of their disgraceful defeat at Uhud and to boost the morale of his demoralized soldiers. One Muslim, who missed out the Uhud battle because of his father's reluctance to let him fight in the Jihad was allowed to join the Muslim army. The son of a martyred Jihadist sought Muhammad's permission to join in this expedition; he was also allowed in.
Besides them, several wounded Jhadists also joined this march.
A little before Muhammad set out in the pursuit of the departing Meccan army, he sent three spies, all belonging to B. Aslam to track the footprint of the departing Meccan army. Two of them met the Meccan army at Hamra al-Asad, about eight (or ten, as per ibn S'ad) miles from Medina. Abu Sufyan had already come to learn about Muhammad's venture to pursue the Meccans. The two spies heard the discussion among the Quraysh: whether they should go back and finish off the Muslims once and for all or to continue their journey to Mecca. Abu Sufyan was in favor of inflicting a deciding blow to the Muslims, but on the counseling of Safwan ibn Umayyah, he decided against it and, instead, proceeded towards Mecca. It happened just a day before the Muslim Jihadists arrived at Hamra al-Asad. Prior to their departure from Hamra al-Asad, the Quraysh spotted the two Muslim spies, caught them and killed them, leaving their corpses on the road. Nothing is known about the whereabouts of the third Muslim sleuth. Presumably, he fled and returned to Muhammad.
The Jihadists, under the leadership of a bandaged Muhammad, went up to Hamra al-Asad, and found the two dead bodies of the spies that Muhammad had sent for intelligence on the Quraysh. Once Muhammad learned that the Quraysh were not there to attack him further, he felt elated and decided to spend three nights (or five, according to ibn Sa'd)-- until Wednesday, (March 25-27, 625) before returning to Medina. While recuperating at Hamra al-Asad from his battle wound suffered at Uhud, he ordered five hundred fires kindled on the adjoining heights, simply to send the Quraysh the strong message of his strength.
Further, while Muhammad was at Hamra al-Asad, he made an agreement with Mabad al-Khuzaah at Tihamah. Both the Muslims and the polytheists of Tihamah were trusted allies of Muhammad. They made a compact with Muhammad to not to conceal anything from him.
Then, Mabad went to Mecca; met with Abu Sufyan and talked falsely that Muhammad had gathered a great force to fight Abu Sufyan. At that time Abu Sufyan and his companions were planning a massive and decisive attack on Medina to finish off the Muslims once and for all. Hearing Mabad's vein talk of a great military strength of Muhammad, Abu Sufyan retreated from his plan of an immediate attack on the Muslims. Thus, Muhammad, once again, proved that the use of terror and deceit do indeed work for his cause.
After the demonstration of his mettle at Hamra al-Asad, Muhammad returned to Medina. One Quraysh soldier was loitering at Hamra al-Asad. He was the poet Abu Azzah al-Jumahi, a poor man with five daughters. He had just missed the Quraysh party. Previously, he was one of the prisoners of Badr II. As he was an indigent, having no means to pay ransom, he pleaded for his freedom. Muhammad released him freely on the condition that he would not take up arms against Muslims again. However, he was tempted by the Meccans to fight with the promise of a great reward of a win; or the maintenance of his five daughters in case of his being killed. After the Uhud battle when the Muslims caught this hapless destitute, he begged mercy from Muhammad, but Muhammad was not to be moved by pity or compassion; he ordered Abu Azzah's killing, as he had broken his promise. Hazrat Ali personally killed him.
Another Quraysh, while returning to Mecca lost his way and passed the night near Medina. Next morning, he went to the house of Uthman ibn Affan (Muhammad's son-in law). Uthman procured for him, a grace period of three days, arranged a camel and provisions for his return journey to Mecca. Having made such arrangement, Uthman departed with Muhammad for Hamra-al-Asad. The unlucky Quraysh tarried and stayed in Medina until the last day of his term of grace. Muhammad, hearing about his delay by just one day, caught him and put him to death.
Al-Harith b. Suwayd was a hypocrite. He went to Uhud with Muslims but killed some Muslims. Then he fled to Mecca, to the Quraysh. After that, al-Harith sent his brother to Muhammad for his forgiveness, so that he could return to Medina. Muhammad allowed his return, but was undecided about his fate, preferring to make a decision after returning from Hamra al-Asad. On his hesitation Allah quickly sent the verse 3:86 indicating that those who reject faith after accepting it should be put to death
So, after returning to Medina, Muhammad ordered the execution of al-Harith b. Suwayd for the suspected murder of al- Mujaddzir of B. Aws. This incident (i.e., the alleged and unproven murder of al-Mujaddzir) happened nine or ten years ago. Muhammad gave order to Uthman b Affan , his son-in-law to cut off the head of al-Harith.
Hazrat Uthman beheaded al-Harith at the gate of the mosque, right in front of Muhammad.
The success at Badr II was seen as a proof of Muhammad's divine claim. Now, the defeat at Uhud was subversive to his prophetic claims. The Jews started broadcasting this argument. Muhammad was now deeply concerned to regain his reputation and to re-invigorate his followers. He started to preach that the defeat at Uhud was due to the hypocrites. He claimed that Allah, in the oracle of Sura 3 told this truth to him. Then he proceeded to sift the true believers from the hypocrites by blaming those who stayed at home and did not join the Jihad at Uhud. Arguing that even if he died, his cause remained, he promised future success to his believers if they remained steadfast and be courageous. The cause itself was immortal and divine-- he was absolutely adamant. This exhortation had its intended effect on the true Jihadists, and they were now reassured. He was satisfied that he could really make his gullible believers accept any postulation that he fancied them to accept as true.
The Plunder of B. Asad ibn Khuzaymah at Katan in Nejd by Abu Salma b. Abd al Asad al-Makhzumi - April, 625CE
Bani Asad ibn Khuzaymah, the resident of Katan, in the vicinity of Fayd, where there was a spring, was a powerful tribe connected with the Quraysh. They resided near the hill of Katan in the Nejd. Muhammad, purportedly, received intelligence reports that they were planning a raid on Medina. So, he dispatched a force of one hundred men underthe leadershipofAbu Salma b. Abd al Asad al-Makhzumi to make a sudden attack on this tribe. On the first day of Muharram, while they were completely unprepared, Abd al-Asad, perpetrated an unprovoked terror raid on them and took their booty.
However, this terror operation was not a huge success. When the Jihadists arrived at the site, the victims fled and the Muslims found three herdsmen with a large herd of camels and goats. They took the camels and goats as booty, and the three herdsmen as prisoners. Then the booty, along with the three captives was brought to Medina. Muhammad took one of the prisoners (presumably as a slave) for himself, distributed the camels and cattle among the Jihadists keeping his due share of the plunder. This success in plunder restored some of the Muslim prestige that had been lost at Uhud. Abu Salamah did not live long after this raid due to the inflammation of the wound he received at Uhud.
In this connection it may be appropriate to mention that, as per Islamic rule on plunder, all the immovable booty must be taken out and removed from the site of plunder. It s unlawful, according to Islamic rule, not to take possession of infidel wealth after a successful plunder. On the rule on Ghanimah, (plunder), the Dictionary of Islam writes, "If the Imam, or the leader of the Muslim army, conquer a country by force of arms, he is at liberty to leave the land in possession of the original proprietors, provided they pay tribute, or he may divide it amongst the Muslims; but with regard to moveable property, it is unlawful for him to leave it in possession of the infidels, but he must bring it away with the army and divide it amongst the soldiers."
The Assassination of Sufyan ibn Khalid, the B. Lihyan Chief at Urana (the first attack on B. Lihyan) by Abd Allah b. Unays - April, 625CE
B. Lihyan, a branch of the powerful tribe of Hudhayl (a section of the Quraysh), inhabited the vicinity of Mecca. When the terrors of Muhammad's Jihadists became unbearable, they rallied around their chief, Khalid ibn Sufyan al-Hudhayli at Urana to follow up the late victory at Uhud.
Four days after the plunder at Katan (i.e., on the fifth day of Muharram) Muhammad learned that Sufyan b Khalid (or Khalid b. Sufyan, there is controversy on this) was collecting people at Nakhla to make an attack on him. So, he called Abdullah b. Unays to go to Nakhla or Urana on a mission to kill ibn Khalid. When Abdullah b. Unays wanted a description of his victim, Muhammad replied, "When you will see him, you will be frightened and bewildered and you will recall Satan." Abd Allah b. Unays said that he was not afraid of ibn Khalid; but to assassinate him, he (Abd Allah) would have to resort to lies and deceit. He sought Muhammad's permission to tell lies, and to commit the act of deception. Muhammad unhesitatingly permitted him to do so. Abd Allah b. Unays prayed to Allah before going on this murder mission. He spent almost eighteen days to find a way to infiltrate ibn Khalid's newly recruited army. Then he found ibn Khalid in a halting place. When he met him, he bowed his head, pretending to be a respectful follower of ibn Khalid. When ibn Khalid asked about Abd Allah's identity, Abd Allah said that he was an Arab and wanted to join as a volunteer in ibn Khalid's force against Muhammad. Sufyan b. Khalid trusted him and provided him with shelter. Then, once, while conversing, Abd Allah b. Unays walked a short distance with ibn Khalid, and when an opportunity came he struck him with his sword and killed him. After killing ibn Khalid, he cut off his head, brought that to Muhammad, and while he (Muhammad) was at his mosque, threw the head of ibn Khalid at Muhammad's feet. When he told Muhammad the details of his act of assassination, Muhammad praised him and gave him, as his reward, a stick as a sign between him and Abd Allah on the resurrection day. Abd Allah fastened the stick with his sword, and it remained with him until his death. When he died, the stick was buried with him.
This assassination had the effect of silencing the Banu Lihyan, for some time. But another branch of B.Lihyan wanted to take revenge of the murder of their leader Sufyan ibn Khalid.
The Mishap at al-Rajii - May or July, 625CE
This is an important episode in the early history of Islam. In this episode of terror and murder we have a clear glimpse of a terribly violent society of the savage Bedouin Arabs. Spilling blood was almost a routine affair in that barbaric culture, no matter who initiated it or who was in the wrong or right. As you read this chilling episode of 'peaceful' Islam, recall the seemingly unstoppable violence that is perpetrated around the globe by the Islamic Jihadists. There are several versions of this story-making it difficult to ascertain its verity. Here is the version that I compiled, mainly from the version of Tabari and Ibn Ishaq. Variations are indicated with appropriate references.
Immediately after the Uhud battle, a group of men from Adal and al-Qarah came to Muhammad; requested him to send with them a few instructors to teach Islam to their people who had embraced Islam. Muhammad readily agreed to this, and promptly sent six men (or ten men as per Ibn Sa'd) with them. In reality, those emissaries were sent by the B. Lihyan people who wanted to avenge the killing of their chief, Sufyan b. Khalid al-Hudhayli (refer to Terror 24). Those emissaries were paid agents of B. Lihyan. Among the six teachers of Islam selected by Muhammad was Asim b. Thabit, the brother of B. Amr b. Awf; Marthad b. Abi Marthad (or Asim b. Thabit as per Ibn Sa'd) was appointed the head of this delegation.
When the Muslim party arrived at al-Raji, the delegation took rest for the night. The Adal and Qarah, in connivance with the Hudhayl, the owner of the watering place, made a completely surprise attack with swords on the six Muslims to extract money from them. They promised not to kill them, but to derive money as ransom. However, the Muslims refused to believe the promise of the polytheists and fought back. All the Muslims, except Zayd b. al-Dathinnah, Khubyab b. Adi and Abd Allah b. Tariq were killed. These three Muslims surrendered and were taken as prisoners to be sold in Mecca. After killing Asim b. Thabit, Hudhayl wanted to sell his head to Sulafah bt. Sad b. Shuhayd, for, she had vowed to drink from the skull of Asim b. Thabit. This was in retribution for the killing of her sons (remember? her two sons, Musafi and Julas were killed by Asim b. Thabit at Uhud) at Uhud. They could not cut off the head of Asim b. Thabit, as hornets (?) protected it and Allah sent a flood in the wadi that carried away Asim's body!It is claimed that Asim vowed that no polytheist should ever touch his body nor would he touch any polytheist's body.
When the party, along with the three captives arrived at al-Zahran, Abd Allah b. Tariq attempted to escape, but his captors killed him by stoning. The other two prisoners were taken to Mecca and sold there as slaves. Hujayr b. Abi Ihab bought Khubayb on behalf of Uqbah b. al-Harith, so that Uqbah can kill Khubyab in revenge for his father's killing at Uhud. Safwan b. Umayyah bought Zayd b. al-Dathinah to be killed in revenge for the killing of his father Umayyah b. Khalaf in Badr II.
Islamic historian, such as Ibn Ishak claims that Khubyab was a trusty slave because he did not do any harm to a minor boy of the al-Harith family while the boy was with him and Khubayab had a blade with him to shave his hair. Later, the mother of the little boy vouched that she had never encountered a captive as virtuous as Khubyab. Of course, these are exaggerated stories that are better left for the readers to judge. Khubayb was kept in jail while waiting to be crucified and remained imprisoned until the sacred months had passed, and then the Quraysh killed him.
During his execution time at Ka'ba, Khubyab presumably asked to be allowed to pray two prostrations. He was allowed to offer his prayer and this became the tradition for those Muslims who are about to be executed.
The prayer over, Abu Sirwaah b. al-Harith b. Amir took Khubyab out and beheaded him.
The other captive Zayd b. al-Dathinah was given to Safwan's servant, Nastas for execution .Before the killing of Zayd b. al-Dathinah, Abu Sufyan wanted to spare his life in exchange for the life of Muhammad. But Zayd's love for Muhammad was so great that he did not want Muhammad to be hurt even by a thorn prick. In the end, Nistas killed Zayd b.Dathinah.
Muhammad and the Muslim community were greatly saddened by the news of the death of those six Jihadists. Hassan ibn Thabit, the Muslim poet composed a poem in their memory. Muhammad was alarmed to fear the deterioration of Muslim prestige in case such events were to repeat. To counter such fear Allah promptly sent down His assurance in verse 2:204.
When the news of the kidnap and selling of those two slaves reached Muhammad, he immediately dispatched Abu Kurayb to the Quraysh as a spy. It is claimed that he untied Khubyab's dead body from the cross. It is also claimed that the dead body of Khubyab fell on the ground and disappeared forever
Attempt on the Liife of Abu Sufyan b. Harb by 'Amr b. Umayyah al-Damri - July, 625CE
After the killing of Khubayb (after the affair at al-Rajii) and his companion, Muhammad commissioned the service of Amr b. Umayyah al-Damri, a professional killer, along with an Ansar to murder Abu Sufyan b. Harb. It is also claimed that during this ruction Abu Sufyan also sent an assassin to kill Muhammad. The Muslims caught the assassin and he pleaded for his life. Muhammad forgave him and he embraced Islam. But Muhammad wanted to take revenge on Abu Sufyan. So he sent out a two-man assassin squad led by the hired killer Amr b. Umayyah, having instructed Amr to kill Abu Sufyan stealthily when he (Abu Sufyan) is resting or retiring. These two desperado Jihadists set out, riding a camel. As per Tabari, the Ansar had a foot problem. They went riding the camel to the valley of Yajaj where they decided that Amr would go to Abu Sufyan's house to assassinate him. If there was a commotion, or if there was any danger, then the Ansari would immediately return to Muhammad for reporting and further instructions. Amr's mission to kill Abu Sufyan was not a success so he returned to his Ansari companion.
They entered Ka'ba and did the Hajj rituals. While exiting, a man (Muawiyah, as per Ibn Sa'd) recognised Amr b. Umaya and cried out; for, Amr was a violent and unruly fellow. So, the Ka'ba people got up to pursue Amr. Amr and his Ansari companion then took to the heel and climbed the mountain and went into a cave where they spent the night, thus eluding the Meccans. While they were in the cave, one Quraysh went there to cut grass for his donkey. He went to the very proximity of the cave, where Amr had taken sanctuary. Amr came out of his cave and stabbed the Quraysh for no reason. The Quraysh's shrill voice attracted the attention of other Meccans searching for Amr. When the Meccans came to the rescue of the mortally wounded Qurasyh, he told them that Amr had stabbed him; then he died. The Meccans were so occupied with the dead Quraysh that they had no time to look for Amr. After two days of stay in the cave, Amr and his companion went out, and when they reached al-Tanim they found the cross of Khubayb. A guard was watching the cross. Apprehending that the Ansari man was frightened, Amr advised him to mount the camel, return to Muhammad and report the story to him. Amr alone went to the cross, untied the corpse of Khubyab and carried it on his back. But the Meccans soon found him out. So, Amr immediately threw down the corpse of Khubyab, ran for his life and took the road to al-Safra, managing to escape the Meccan chasers. His Ansari companion mounted the camel, returned to Muhammad and narrated him what had happened.
Amr continued on his foot until he came to another cave and took shelter there with his bows and arrows. A one-eyed man (a shepherd) of B. al-Dil came to this snuggery. Amr lied to him that he was a man from B. Bakr (Quraysh's ally). The one-eyed man also admitted that he was from B. Bakr. Then the one-eyed man lay down beside Amr and sang a song indicating that he would never become a Muslim as long as he lived. This angered Amr and he waited to finish off the one-eyed shepherd. As soon as the shepherd (the one-eyed man) slept, Amr got up and killed the one-eyed man in the most a horrible way. He put the end of his arrow in his sound eye; bore it down until it was forced out at the back of his neck. After this gory killing of the Bedouin shepherd, Amr rushed out of the cave and ran to a nearby village, then to Rakubah and finally to al-Naqi. While there, he spotted two Meccan spies who were sent to watch on Muhammad. Amr asked them to surrender. One of them refused, so Amr killed him with his arrow. The other Meccan surrendered; Amr tied him up and took him to Muhammad.
When Amr returned to Muhammad with the Meccan prisoner, Muhammad blessed Amr for a job well done.
The Affairs of Bir Maunah - July, 625CE
This episode is indeed a tragic one for the Muslims. It involved the slaying of forty (as per Ibn Ishaq) or seventy of Muslim missionary by the infidels. Nonetheless, when we review the past activities of what havoc and terror Muhammad perpetrated on those who did not believe in him, it is quite clear-cut to guess that Muhammad was simply asking for such retribution from his victims. After all, no sane person can remain sober and peaceful in the face of Muhammad's unrelenting foray of terror, torture, political assassination, war mongering, highway robbery-etc. It was time for the infidels to get even and teach Muhammad a lesson that he had been asking for.
When I consulted several Islamic sources on the details of this episode, I found quite conflicting and confusing narrations. Here is the best way that I could summarize this important event of early Islam.
Four months after the Uhud battle, and following the return of the hired assassin Amr b. Umayyah, Abu Bara, the aged chief of the delegation of B. Amir b. Sasaah came to Muhammad and presented him with a gift. Abu Bara stayed in Medina. Muhammad declined to accept that gift because it was from a polytheist and asked Abu Bara to embrace Islam. Abu Bara declined, although he acknowledged certain good points of Islam. He requested Muhammad to send some Muslims to the people of Najd to call them to Islam. At first, Muhammad was quite apprehensive of this, as he feared that some harm might befall on these Muslim missionaries. On Muhammad's hesitation, Abu Bara guaranteed the safety of the emissaries of Muhammad. So Muhammad sent forty Islamic preachers (some say seventy), making al-Mundhir b. Amr as the chief of this missionary team. It is claimed that they were the best of Muslims among Muhammad's companions.
These new missionaries (expert Qur'an reciters) rode on horses until they arrived at the well of Bir Maunah. Bir Maunah lies between the territories of B. Amir and B. Sulaym. At Bir Maunah, the Muslims sent a messenger with a letter of Muhammad to Amir b. Tufayl, the cousin of Abu Bara and the chief of B. Amir. When the messenger met Amir b. Tufayl, the latter immediately killed him without even opening the letter of Muhammad. Amir b. Tufayl then requested the B. Amir people to help him fight the Muslims. They refused to entertain his request, as they were reluctant to betray the promise of safety by Abu Bara to the Muslims. So, Amir b. Tufayl took the help of B. Sulaym against the Muslims. Together, they attacked the Muslims. The Muslims fought back, but in the end, all of them were killed except for Ka'b b. Zayd. He was at the point of death when the enemy left him. He survived and somehow managed to return to Medina.
Sahih Bukhari records this incidence in this Hadith:
Volume 2, Book 16, Number 116:
I asked Anas bin Malik about the Qunut. Anas replied, "Definitely it was (recited)". I asked, "Before bowing or after it?" Anas replied, "Before bowing." I added, "So and so has told me that you had informed him that it had been after bowing." Anas said, "He told an untruth (i.e. "was mistaken," according to the Hijazi dialect). Allah's Apostle recited Qunut after bowing for a period of one month." Anas added, "The Prophet sent about seventy men (who knew the Quran by heart) towards the pagans (of Najd) who were less than they in number and there was a peace treaty between them and Allah's Apostles (but the Pagans broke the treaty and killed the seventy men). So Allah's Apostle recited Qunut for a period of one month asking Allah to punish them."
When the news of this massacre reached Muhammad, he was greatly grieved and sent Amr b. Umayyah (the professional killer, remember?) and an Aansar to investigate the whole matter. They approached the area and discovered the killing of the Muslims by the swirling vultures in the sky. They witnessed the Muslims lying in blood and their killers standing by. In anger they resorted to fight. The perpetrators killed the Ansar in no time and took Amr b. Umayyah as a prisoner. But soon he was released by Amir b. Tufayl due to distant kinship. Before releasing Amr, Amir cut off his forelock.
Upon his release from Amir b. Tufayl, Amr b. Umayyah traveled towards Medina. On his way he stopped at Qarkarat, an oasis where he met two men of B. Amir who halted next to Amr b. Umayyah. B. Amir had a treaty of protection with Muhammad that Amr b. Umayyah was unaware of. When they were asleep, Amr rushed and killed these two men of B. Amir thinking that he had taken his revenge. When Muhammad learned what Amr had done he told Amr that he (Muhammad) had to pay the blood money. Muhammad blamed the whole episode of slaughter to Abu Bara. When Abu Bara heard of what had previously been suspected, he was greatly remorseful at the betrayal of Amir b. Tufayl.
One may legitimately ask why only Muhammad had to pay blood money for the killing of the two people of B. Amir but he (Muhammad) received no blood money for the killing of the Muslim missionaries? Tabari explains this seemingly confusing rule on blood money in a footnote. He writes:
"Muhammad had to pay blood money for the murder of two men of b Amir because of the compact he had with them. He could not claim blood money for the Muslims as presumably the B. Sulaym killed them even if Amir b. Tufayl had asked the B. Sulaym to do so."
On the slaying of Muslim missionaries, Hassan b. Thabit (Muhammad's personal poet) composed a passionate poem on the sad demise of them and incited the sons of Abu Bara against Amir b. al-Tufayl. When Rabiah, the son of Abu Bara heard the words of Hassan b. Thabit, he attacked Amir b. al-Tufayl with his lance but failed to kill him. Amir put the blame on his uncle Abu Bara and vowed to take revenge either himself or by other people, should he die.
Naturally, Muhammad was extremely crestfallen at the Bir Maunah affair. His followers were deeply demoralized at this tragedy. To boost their morale Allah quickly sent down verse 3:169-173, in which He declared that the Jihadists do not die; they live, finding their sustenance with Him. It is said that Allah released another verse in which the slain Jihadists informed their people that they had met Allah; but the verse was, later, abrogated. Mubarakpuri, sourcing from Islamic authorities, quotes this abrogated verse thus: "Inform our people that we have met our Lord. He is pleased with us and He has made us pleased." It is not known why Allah suddenly changed His mind and ostensibly abrogated this verse. Nowhere in the Qur'an the abrogation of any such verse is mentioned!
Muhammad now started a campaign to collect blood money from the Muslims and their Jewish allies. As the Jews were much wealthier than the Muslims, Muhammad devised a clever plan to extract this blood money from the Jews of B. Nadir, who were living in their sanctuary that was not very far off from the Muslims' quarter. Muhammad had already made up his mind to expel this group of Jews and appropriate their land and property, to not only to pay blood money, but also to enrich his downhearted Jihadists who were absolutely dispirited at the tragedy of Bir Maunah. He had to do something urgently to placate and to lift their morale and to save his prestige and clout among his fanatic believers. His experience with B. Qaynuqa (read Terror 14) had already taught him how simple it was to terrorize an entire section of infidel population, steal their land and property with impunity and without the slightest of any compunction. Muhammad was now poised to use terror again to his full advantage.
Abul Kasem is an Bengali ex-Muslim and academic. He has contributed in Leaving Islam - Apostates Speak Out and Beyond Jihad - Critical Voices from Inside and Why We Left Islam.. He has also written extensively on Islam in various websites and is the author of five e-Books: A Complete Guide to Allah, Root of Terrorism ala Islamic Style, Sex and Sexuality in Islam, Who Authored the Quran? and Women in Islam. Mr. Kasem leaves in Sydney, Australia. He can be contacted at firstname.lastname@example.org.